Ocellomma picconianum

Crustose, thallus white ecorticate. Apothecia 0,2-0,5mm across, black disc often white pruinose; white thalline margin with large crystals of calcium oxalate. Epithecium brown, hymenium colourless. Hypothecium colourless to pale brown, I+ blue, K/I+ violet. Asci 8-spored, with I+blue ring in tholus. Ascospores 3-setptate, hyaline, 24-28 x 4-5 μm.
Reproduction: mainly sexual.
Photobiont: Trentepohlia
Spot test: thallus K-, C-, KC-. P-, UV-
Chemistry: thallus with Roccellic acid.
Habitat: On bark in humid woodlands.
Distribution: Mediterranean-Atlantic. 
 Hypothecium colourless to pale brown, I+ blue, K/I+ violet
Photobiont: Trentepohlia

Position in classification: Roccellaceae, Arthoniales, Arthoniomycetidae, Arthoniomycetes, Pezizomycotina, Ascomycota, Fungi
Locality data:
Location: Monestir de Sant Benet, Sant Fruitós del Bages (Bages)
Ecology: On Robinia pseudoacacia.
Altitude: 234 m
Climate: Subhumid Continental Mediterranean (Tmm=13-14,0ºC, 550-600 mm)
The name Ocellomma refers to the small ascomata with often whitish margins contrasting against the disc and which makes them look like small eyes. (Ertz, D., Tehler, A., Irestedt, M., Frisch, A., Thor, G. & van den Boom, P. (2015) A large-scale phylogenetic revision of Roccellaceae (Arthoniales) reveals eight new genera. Fungal Diversity 70: 31–53. https://doi.org/10.1007/s13225-014-0286-5 )

Hypogymnia physodes

Thallus foliose 6-10 cm diameter, appressed, lobes hollow inside, ascending at the tips, grey-green, glossy. Soralia labriform. Lower surface black, without rhizines, brown at the margin of the lobes.
Reproduction: mainly by soreida, apothecia very rare.
Photobiont: Chlorococcoid.
Spot test: cortex K+ yellow, C-, KC-, P+ pale yellow, UV-; medulla and soralia K-, C-, KC+. orange-red, P+ orange-red.
Chemistry: upper cortex with atranorin and chloroatranorin; medulla with physodic acid (major), 2'-O-methylphysodic acid (minor or accessory), 3-hydroxyphysodic acid (major), physodalic acid (major), and protocetraric acid (minor).
Habitat: mainly on acid barks; also on bryophytes, plant debris, soil or siliceous rocks; hygrophilic.
Distribution: Holartic, cold and temperate regions.
Position in classification:
Parmeliaceae, Lecanorales, Lecanoromycetidae, Lecanoromycetes, Pezizomycotina, Ascomycota, Fungi.
Locality data:
Location: Vall de la Pena, Paratge Natural d'Interès Nacional de Poblet, Vimbodí i Poblet (Conca de Barberà)
Ecology: On Pinus nigra subsp. salzmannii.
Altitude: 810 m.
Climate: Continental Mediterranean (Tmm=11,7ºC,  600mm).
Common name: monk's-hood lichen.
Etymology of names: Hypogymnia, derived from the Greek ὑπο- (hupó, meaning "under or bellow") and γυμνός (gumnós, "naked"), refers to the bare lower surface of the thallus without rhizines; physodes from
the Greek φῡσώδης (phūsṓdēs, “bladder-like”) it may refer to refers to the swollen and fistulous lobes.
Ethnolichenology: Hypogymnia physodes is often used as bioindicator of air pollution. Mixed with Evernia prunastri and Pseudevernia furfuracea as “Lichen Quercinus virides”, a popular drug in the 15th century in Europe (SENFT, E., 1911. The so-called "Lichen Quercinus virides". Pharm. Post. 43: 1017-1019).

Parmotrema hypoleucinum

Thallus foliose, epiphyte, 3-15 cm diameter, very loosely attached. Lobes irregular, grey with blackened areas, white maculate; margins undulate with black cilia; soralia marginal. Lower surface white, without rhizines.
Reproduction: soreida.
Photobiont: Trebouxia.
Spot test: upper cortex K+ yellow, medulla K+ yellow turning orange, P+ orange.
Chemistry: upper cortex with atranorin and chloroatranorin; medulla with stictic acid and constictic and norstictic acids.
Habitat: On trunks and branches of coastal pine and cork oak forest.
Distribution: Pantropical an pantemperate.
Position in classification:
Parmeliaceae, Lecanorales, Lecanoromycetidae, Lecanoromycetes, Pezizomycotina, Ascomycota, Fungi.
Locality data:
Location: Creu de Rupit, Arenys de Munt, Parc del Montnegre i el Corredor (Maresme).
Ecology: On Pinus radiata.
Altitude: 423 m.
Climate: Littoral Mediterranean (Tmm=13ºC ΔT=16ºC, 700 mm).

Included in the red list of lichens of Catalonia, with the VU vulnerable classification.

Waynea stoechadiana

Thallus squamulose, epiphyte, green-glossy, lower surface white sorediate. Spathulate squamules 0,3-2,5 mm, with marginal labriform soralia. Apothecia rare, laminal, sessile, biatorine, grey-brown.

Asci 8-spored; ascospores hyaline 1-2 septate, 9-17 x 2-3.5 µm.  
Photobiont: Green algae.
Spot test: medulla K+ yellow.
Chemistry: thallus with an unidentified depsidone and traces of lecanoric acid, Arceutina-yellow pigment in subhymenium, Sedifolia-grey pigment in epithecium. 
Habitat: On bark, on ancient trees, QuercusOleaJuniperus, in humid areas.
Distribution: Mediterranean-Macaronesian.
Position in classification: Ramalinaceae, Lecanorales, Lecanoromycetidae, Lecanoromycetes, Pezizomycotina, Ascomycota, Fungi.
Included the RED LIST OF LICHENS OF CATALONIA with the VU vulnerable classification.

Locality data:
Location: Bosc de la Marquesa, Tarragona (Tarragonès).
Ecology: On Juniperus phoenicea subsp. turbinata. Included in the Red List of Flora of Catalonia
Altitude: 30 m.
Climate: Mediterranean Csa (Tmm=16,0ºC, P=500 mm).

Coniocarpon cinnabarinum

Thallus crustose, epiphyte, white-grey, with a brown prothalline line.

Apothecia arthonioid, covered with a red pruina.
Asci 8-spored; ascospores 3-5 septate 20-28 x 7-10 µm; hyaline then brown.  
Photobiont: Trentepohlia
Spot test: red pigments K+ red violet.

Chemistry: different anthraquinones.
Habitat: On acid bark, in humid and non-nitrophilic environments.
Distribution: Holarctic, suboceanic. From the cold Atlantic forests to the more thermal ones of the Mediterranean Region.
Position in classification: Arthoniaceae, Arthoniales, Arthoniomycetidae, Arthoniomycetes, Pezizomycotina, Ascomycota, Fungi.
Locality data:
Location: Canyamars (Maresme)
Ecology: On Alnus glutionosa bark.
Altitude: 260 m
Climate: Central litoral Mediterranean (Tmm=12,0ºC, P=650 mm).

Chaenotheca chrysocephala

Thallus crustose, epiphyte, bright yellow coarse ecorticate granules.
Apothecia frequent, stalked and pin-like, 0.6-1.3 mm tall. Stalk 0.04-0.08 mm thick, brown, with a yellow pruina at least in the upper part.
Asci cylindrical, 14-19 x 2-3.5 µm; Ascospores 1-celled, brown, uniseriate, short ellipsoid to globose, 6-9 x 4-6 µm, with a coarse and irregular ornamentation.
Photobiont Trebouxia.
Spot test negative.
Chemistry: thallus and apothecial pruina with vulpinic acid.
On bark and wood of conifers and more rarely on deciduous trees. Mountain and subalpine areas.
Distribution: Boreal-temperate from Europe, Asia, North and Central America, Australasia. 
Position in classification: Coniocybaceae, Coniocybales, Incertae sedis, Coniocybomycetes, Pezizomycotina, Ascomycota, Fungi. 

Locality data:
Location: Bon Repòs, Gavet de la Conca (Pallars Jussà)
Ecology: On the base of a trunk of Pinus sylvestris.
Altitude: 1,060 m
Climate: Eastern Pre-pyrenean Mediterranean (Tmm=11,0ºC, P=750 mm)

Blastenia ferruginea

Crustose epiphyte, thallus white-grey, 5cm across, black prothallus. Apothecia biatorine, abundant 0.5-2 mm diameter, disc and margin rust red.
Distribution: Worldwide.

Asci 8-spored, ascospores 2-celled, polarilocular, hyaline, 12-17 x 7-10 μm, septum 6-7 μm. 
Thallus: K-, apothecia K+ red; apothecia margin C+ purple in section.

Position in classification: Teloschistaceae, Teloschistales, Lecanoromycetidae, Lecanoromycetes, Pezizomycotina, Ascomycota, Fungi.
Locality data:
Location: Bosc de Bosoms, Guixers (Solsonès)
Ecology: On a twig of Quercus pubescens.
Altitude: 836 m
Climate: Eastern Pre-pyrenean Mediterranean (Tmm=10,0ºC,  850 mm)